Carcinoid Heart Disease (CHD)
Carcinoid syndrome (CS) is the most frequent hormonal complication of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is defined by chronic diarrhoea and/or flushing in the presence of high levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA).
Carcinoid syndrome usually occurs with NETs found in the intestine but can also occur in other types of NETs (lung, pancreatic, ovarian, or unknown origin NETs).
Serotonin, together with other bioactive substances, can affect the right side of the heart inducing changes known as carcinoid heart disease, which are present in approximately 20%–30% of patients with carcinoid syndrome. When CHD is present timely treatment and follow-up is required.